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Automobili








Automotive superlatives

Car Show

Automotive superlatives

From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia, by MultiMedia

Back | Home | Up | Next


This page lists superlatives of the automobile industry - that is, the smallest, largest, fastest, lightest, best-selling, and other such topics.

In order to keep the entries relevant, the list (except for the Firsts section) will be limited to automobiles built after World War II. Many odd vehicles emerged in the early days of the automobile industry.

The list will also be limited to production road cars that meet the following conditions:

  1. 20 or more examples must have been made by the original vehicle manufacturer and offered for commercial sale to the public in new condition - cars modified by either professional tuners or individuals are not eligible
  2. They must be street-legal in their intended markets and capable of passing any tests or inspections required to be granted this status
  3. They must have been built for retail sale to consumers for their personal use on public roads - no commercial or industrial vehicles are eligible

Some notes about units of measurement used herein

Engine capacity/displacement

  • 1 L = 1,000 cubic centimeters = 61.0237 cubic inches
  • 1 in³ = 16.3871 cubic centimeters

Engine output

Power

  • 1 horsepower (hp) = 1 brake hp ( hp) = 1.0139 metric hp (PS) = 0.7457 kilowatts (kW)
  • 1 metric hp = 0.9863 hp = 0.7355 kilowatts
  • 1 kilowatt = 1.3410 hp = 1.3596 metric hp

Torque

  • 1 pound-foot of torque ( ft·lbf) = 1.3558 newton-meter (N·m)
  • 1 newton-meter = 0.7376 pound-feet

Fuel economy

  • 1 mile per US gallon = 1.2009 miles per imperial gallon = 0.4252 kilometers per L = 235.208 liters per 100 kilometers
  • 1 mile per imperial gallon = 0.8327 miles per US gallon = 0.3540 kilometers per L = 282.4731 liters per 100 kilometers
  • 1 kilometer per L = 2.3521 miles per US gallon = 2.8247 miles per imperial gallon
  • 1 L per 100 kilometers = 235.208 miles per US gallon = 282.4731 miles per imperial gallon

Power to weight or weight to power

  • 1 hp per short ton = 1.12 hp per long ton = 0.82199 kilowatt per metric ton
  • 1 hp per long ton = 0.89286 hp per short ton = 0.76890 kilowatt per metric ton
  • 1 kilowatt per metric ton = 1.2166 hp per short ton = 1.3625 hp per long ton
  • 1 pound per hp = 0.60828 kilogram per kilowatt

Engine capacity

  • Straight-3 (I3)
    • Smallest I3 engine (gasoline) - 0.36 L (357 cc/22 in³) - 1967 Suzuki Fronte
    • Smallest I3 engine (Diesel) - 0.8 L (799 cc/48.8 in³) - 2000 Smart Fortwo cdi
    • Largest I3 engine (gasoline) - 1.2 L (1198 cc/73 in³) - 2002 Volkswagen Polo/Seat Ibiza 1.2
    • Largest I3 engine (Diesel) - 1.8 L (1779 cc/109 in³) - 1984 Alfa Romeo 33 1.8 TD
  • Straight-4 (I4)
    • Smallest I4 engine (gasoline) - 0.36 L (356 cc/21.7 in³) - 1963 Honda T360 AS250E
    • Smallest I4 engine (Diesel) - 1.25 L (1248 cc/65 in³) - 2003 Fiat Panda Multijet
    • Largest I4 engine (gasoline) - 3.2 L (3188 cc/194.5 in³) - 1961 Pontiac Tempest 195
    • Largest I4 engine (Diesel) - 4.3 L (4334 cc/278 in³) - Isuzu NKR 4HF1
  • V4 engine
    • Smallest V4 engine - 0.9 L (903 cc/55 in³) - 1939 Lancia Ardea V4
    • Largest V4 engine - 2.6 L (2568 cc/157 in³) - 1930 Lancia Lambda V4
  • Straight-5 (I5)
    • Smallest I5 engine (gasoline) - 1.9 L (1921 cc/117 in³) - 1981 Audi 100 1.9 E
    • Smallest I5 engine (Diesel) - 2.0 L (1986 cc/121 in³) - 1978 Audi 100 2.0 D
    • Largest I5 engine (gasoline) - 3.5 L (3464 cc/211 in³) - 2004 GM Atlas L52 3500
    • Largest I5 engine (Diesel) - 3.5 L (3469 cc/212 in³) - 1990 Land Cruiser 1PZ Diesel
  • Straight-6 (I6)
    • Smallest I6 engine (gasoline) - 1.5 L (1488 cc/91 in³) - 1948 Maserati A6G
    • Smallest I6 engine (Diesel) - 2.4 L (2383 cc/145 in³) - 1979 Volvo 240 D24
    • Largest I6 engine (gasoline) - 4.9 L (4917 cc/300 in³) - 1965 Ford] 300
    • Largest I6 engine (Diesel) - 5.9 L (5883 cc/359 in³) - 1989 Dodge Ram 250/350 Cummins B series turbodiesel
  • V6 engine
    • Smallest V6 engine (gasoline) - 1.6 L (1597 cc/97 in³) - 1992 Mitsubishi Lancer 6A10
    • Smallest V6 engine (Diesel) - 2.5 L (2496 cc/152 in³) - 1996 Audi/VW 2.5 TDI (in multiple cars)
    • Largest V6 engine (gasoline) - 5.8 L (5755 cc/351 in³) - 1966 GMC 1000-3500 series 351E 60° V6
    • Largest V6 engine (Diesel) - 4.3 L (4304 cc/262 in³) - 1982 GM LT6
  • V8 engine
    • Smallest V8 engine (gasoline) - 2.0 L (1990 cc/121 in³) - 1975 Ferrari 208 GT4
      • Others: ATS/BRM/Coventry Climax and Ferrari Formula One 1.5 L V8 engines (none of them used in a road car)
    • Smallest V8 engine (Diesel) - 3.3 L (3328 cc/203 in³) - 2000 Audi A8 3.3 TDI
    • Largest V8 engine (gasoline) - 8.1 L (8194 cc/500 in³) - 1970 Cadillac Eldorado 500
      • Honorable mention: 9.3 L (9373cc/572in³) - (2003 Chevrolet crate motor)
    • Largest V8 engine (Diesel) - 7.3 L (7275 cc/444 in³) - 1997 Ford F250 Power Stroke
      • Smallest American V8 engine - 3.4 L (3391 cc/207 in³) - 1996 Ford Taurus SHO V8
      • Largest small-block V8 engine - 7.0 L (7008 cc/428 in³) - 2006 Chevrolet Corvette Z06
  • V10 engine
    • Smallest V10 engine - 4.9 L (4921 cc/301 in³) - Volkswagen Touareg V10 TDI
    • Largest V10 engine - 8.3 L (8277 cc/505 in³) - 2003 Dodge Viper
  • V12 engine
    • Smallest V12 engine - 2.0 L (1995 cc/122 in³) - 1948 Ferrari 166 Inter Colombo
    • Largest V12 engine - 7.3 L (7291c cc/445 in³)- 2002 Pagani Zonda C12S AMG-Mercedes
      • Honorable mention: The TVR Cerbera Speed 12 prototype had 7730 cc but the car never entered production.
  • W12 engine
    • Largest W12 engine - 6.0 L (6000 cc/366 cu in³) 2005 Audi A8
  • V16 engine
    • Largest V16 engine - 7.4 L (7406 cc/452 in³)- 1930 Cadillac V16
      • Honorable mention: 6.0 L (6000 cc/366 cu in³) 1995 Cizeta-Moroder V16T (This motor was 2 V8's end-to-end that shared the same timing chain)
      • Honorable mention: 13.6L (13600 cc/829 cu in³) 2003 Cadillac Sixteen (Concept Car)
  • W16 engine
    • Largest W16 engine - 8.0 L (7993 cc) - 2005 Bugatti Veyron 16.4

Dimensions

Overall

  • Shortest (3 wheels) - 1340 mm (52.8 in) - 1962 Peel P50
  • Shortest (4 wheels) - 2286 mm (90 in) - 1956 Isetta
  • Longest
    • Overall - 6342 mm (249.7 in) - 2005 Dodge Ram Quad Cab
      • Honorable mention - 6680 mm (263.0 in) - 2005 Dodge Sprinter High Roof (Not a consumer vehicle)
    • Passenger car - 6,426 mm (253 in) - 1975 Cadillac Fleetwood Seventy-Five
      • Honorable mention - 6852 mm (269.8 in) - Checker Aerocar (Not a consumer vehicle)
      • Honorable mention - 6.4 m (21 ft) Bugatti Royale (Few produced)
  • Lowest - 102 cm (40 in) - 1966 Ford GT40
    • Honorable mention - 37 in (940 mm) - Concept Centaur GT (Not a production car)
  • Highest - 79.4 in (2017 mm) - 2005 Chevrolet Express/GMC Savana 1500 passenger van
    • Honorable mention - 103.6 in (2631 mm) - 2005 Dodge Sprinter High Roof (Not a consumer vehicle)

Wheelbase

  • Shortest wheelbase - 1500 mm (59.1 in) - 1956 Isetta
    • Others:
      • 1800 mm (70.9 in) - 2003 Suzuki Twin
  • Longest wheelbase - 4140 mm (163.0 in) - 2005 Ford F-150 SuperCab
    • Honorable mention - 3880 mm (153 in) - ZIL-41047 (Longest-wheelbase car)
    • Honorable mention - 4475 mm (176.2 in) - 2005 Ford F-350 Super Duty Chassis Crew Cab (Not a passenger vehicle)
    • Honorable mention - 4800 mm (189 in) - Checker Aerocar (Not a consumer vehicle)

Track

  • Widest - 71.0 in (1803 mm) - 2005 GMC Sierra Denali (rear)
    • Honorable mention - 66.7 in (1694 mm) - 2005 Maybach 57 and 62 (rear)
  • Narrowest - 52.2 in (1326 mm) - 2005 Honda Insight (rear)

Weight

  • Lightest passenger vehicle (3 wheels) - 59 kg (132 lb) DIN - 1962 Peel P50
  • Lightest passenger vehicle (4 wheels) - 350 kg (770 lb) DIN - 1956 Isetta
    • Honorable mention - 370 kg (816 lb) DIN - 1992 LCC Rocket
  • Heaviest passenger vehicle - 3550 kg (7825 lb) curb weight - ZIL-41047

Other

  • Largest brake disc - 405 mm (16 in) - 2004 Bentley Continental GT

Power

Most power

  • Petrol/gasoline - (naturally-aspirated) - 485 kW (660 PS/651 hp) - 2003 Ferrari Enzo V12 engine
    • Honorable mention: The TVR Cerbera Speed 12 prototype produced an estimated 701 kW (953 PS/940 hp) (the central shaft of TVR's dynamometer snapped before they could complete the test) but the car never entered production
    • Front-wheel drive: 226 kW (307 PS/303 hp) - GM LS4, 2005 Chevrolet Impala SS and Monte Carlo SS
      • Honorable mention: 287 kW (385 hp) (gross) 1966 Oldsmobile Toronado, less net power than Impala/Monte Carlo
  • Petrol/Gasoline - (forced-induction) - 736 kW (1001 PS/987 hp) - 2005 Bugatti Veyron 16.4 turbocharged W16 engine.
  • Diesel 243 kW (330 PS/326 hp) - BMW M67, 2006 BMW 745d

Most torque

  • Petrol (naturally-aspirated) - 760 N·m (561 ft·lbf), 2005 Pagani Zonda F 7.3 L (445 in³) V12 engine.
  • Petrol (forced-induction) - 1250 N·m (922 ft·lbf), 2005 Bugatti Veyron 8.0 L (488 in³) turbocharged W16 engine.
  • Diesel - 826 N·m (609 ft·lbf), 2005 Dodge Ram 5.9 L Cummins 610 turbocharged I6 engine

Most specific power (power to weight ratio)

  • 100–200 hp — 288.75 hp/metric ton (7.635 lb/hp) — Lotus 340R, 190 hp (142 kW) and 658 kg (1451 lb)
  • 200–300 hp — 657 hp/short ton (3.04 lb/hp) — Ariel Atom 2 supercharged 300 hp (224 kW) and 456 kg (1005 lb)
  • 300–400 hp — 381 hp/metric ton (5.79 lb/hp) — 2003 TVR Tuscan S 400 hp (298 kW) and 1050 kg (2315 lb)
  • 400+ hp — 620 hp/short ton (3.2 lb/hp) — 2004 Koenigsegg ccR supercharged V8 engine 806 hp (468 kW) and 1180 kg (2513 lb)

Most specific engine output (power per unit volume)

  • Naturally-aspirated rotary engine - 140.5 kW (191.1 PS/188.8 hp) /liter - Mazda RX-8 Renesis (184 kW (250 PS/247 hp) JIS 1.3 L)
  • Forced-induction rotary engine - 157.4 kW (214.1 PS/212.3 hp)/liter - 2003 Mazda RX-7 13B-REW (206 kW (280 PS/276 hp JIS 1.3 L)
  • Petrol/Gasoline (naturally-aspirated) piston engine - 92.1 kW (125.2 PS/123.7 hp)/litre - 2000 Honda S2000 F20C (184 kW (250 PS/247 hp) JIS 2.0 L I4)
Note: This output is available in the Japanese market only
  • Honorable mention: 168 hp (125.3 kW)/litre - 2002 Radical Motorsport SR3 (252 hp (184 kW) 1.5 L I4 engine) - (Note: The Radical's status as a production car is disputed, and numbers refer to the competition version, there is no official data for the road version)
  • Petrol/Gasoline (forced-induction) piston engine - 149 kW (203 PS/200 hp)/litre 400hp - 2005 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution VIII FQ400 (298 kW (405 PS/400 hp) 2.0 L I4 (Note: the FQ400's status as a "production car" is disputed)
    • Honorable Mention: 126 kW (171.4 PS/169.7 hp)/litre (441 kW (600 PS/594 hp) DIN 3.5 L V12 quad-turbo) - Bugatti EB110 Super Sport
    • Honorable mention: 179.3 kW (243.8 PS/240,5 kW)/litre (537 kW (730 PS/720 hp) 3.0 L flat-6 twin-turbo) - Dauer 962 LeMans (this is a road version of the Group C Porsche 962)
  • Diesel (naturally-aspirated) - 33.4 kW (45.4 PS/44.7 hp)/litre (100 kW (136 PS/134 hp) DIN 3.0 L I6) - 1995 Mercedes E 300 D
  • Diesel (forced-induction) - 66.8 kW (90.9 PS/89.5 hp)/litre (200 kW (272 PS/268 hp) DIN 3.0 L I6 twin-turbo) - 2005 BMW 535d
    • Honorable Mention: 81.6 kW (111 PS/109.5 hp)/litre (156 kW (212 PS/209 hp) 1.9 L I4 twin-turbo) - 2003 Opel Vectra OPC Concept

Most specific torque (torque per unit displacement)

  • Petrol (naturally-aspirated) - 114 N·m (84 ft·lbf)/litre (370 N·m (273 ft·lbf)) - 2003 BMW M3 CSL
  • Petrol (forced-induction) - 216.6 N·m (159.5 ft·lbf)/litre (432 N·m (318 ft·lbf)) - 2005 Subaru Impreza S204 (japanese market)
    • Honorable mention: 233.6 N·m (172.3 ft·lbf)/litre - 700 N·m/516 ft·lbf Dauer 962 LeMans, road-going versin of the Group C Porsche 962
  • Petrol (naturally-aspirated rotary engine) - 170.8 N·m (126.0 ft·lbf)/litre (222 N·m (164 ft·lbf)) - 2005 Mazda RX-8
  • Petrol (forced-induction rotary engine) - 226.3 N·m (166.9 ft·lbf)/litre (294 N·m (217 ft·lbf)) - 1995 Mazda RX-7 Turbo
  • Diesel - 187.1 N·m (138 ft·lbf)/litre (560 N·m (413 ft·lbf)) - 2005 BMW 535d
    • Honorable mention: 210.5 N·m (154.8 ft·lbf)/litre (400N·m (294 ft·lbf)) - 2003 Opel Vectra OPC Concept

Least specific engine output (power per unit volume)

  • Petrol - 22.5 hp (16.8 kW)/litre, 1973 Chevrolet 307 5.1 L V8, 115 hp (85.8 kW)
  • Diesel - 18.4 hp (13.7 kW)/litre, 1980 Oldsmobile LF9 engine 5.7 L V8, 105 hp (78.3 kW)

Performance

  • Highest USA EPA mileage - 61/66 mpg (3.9/3.6 L/100 km) - 2005 Honda Insight 5-speed
  • Lowest EU average fuel consumption - 2.99 L/100 km (78.6 mpg (US)) - 2002 VW Lupo 1.2 TDI 5-speed
    • Honorable mention: 2.5 L/100 km (94 mpg (US)) - 2002 Opel Eco Speedster Concept (Note: the Eco Speedster is not a "production car")
  • Quickest 0-60 mph (roughly equal to 0-100 km/h):
    • 2.5 s - 2006 Bugatti Veyron
    • Sports car (4 seat) - 3.8 s - 2000 TVR Cerbera (4.5 L version)
    • 4-door car - 3.5 s - 2005 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution VIII FQ400 2.0 L (Note: the FQ400's status as a "production car" is disputed)
    • Pickup truck - 4.9 s - 2004 Dodge Ram SRT-10
      • Honorable mention: 1991 GMC Syclone - most reliable sources suggest 5.0-5.5 seconds, but 4.6 seconds is often quoted
  • Quickest 0-100-0 mph:
    • Sports car (2 seat) - 11.5 sec - McLaren F1 LM (Note: this is the best 0-100-0 time for an undisputed production car)
      • Honorable mention: 9.8 seconds - 2005 Ultima GTR-640[1] - (Note: production numbers for GTR-640 are not available and the GTR's status as a "production car" is disputed)
      • Honorable mention: 10.73 sec - 2004 Caterham 500 - (Note: the Caterham's status as a "production car" is disputed)
      • Honorable mention: 10.88 sec - Ariel Atom 2 300 Supercharged - (Note: in a 2005 issue of the car magazine, Autocar, the Ariel Atom 2 was tested and completed the 0-100-0 run in the time shown)
  • Highest top speed:
    • Sports car - 407 km/h (253 mph) - Bugatti Veyron 16.4[2]
    • 4-door car - 312 km/h (195 mph) - 2005 Bentley Continental Flying Spur
    • Pickup truck - 249 km/h (154.6 mph) - 2004 Dodge Ram SRT-10

Sales

See also List of bestselling vehicle nameplates
  • Best-selling models:
    • Best-selling car nameplate - Toyota Corolla (more than 32,000,000 sold in nine generations since 1966)
    • Best-selling vehicle nameplate - Toyota Corolla (more than 32,000,000 sold in nine generations since 1966)
    • Best-selling single model - Volkswagen Beetle (more than 21,000,000 of the same basic design sold worldwide between 1947 and 2003)
    • Best-selling sports car - Ford Mustang (more than 7,800,000 of five generations sold between 1964 and 2004)
    • Best-selling 2-seat car - Mazda Roadster/MX-5/Miata (more than 700,000 of two generations sold between 1989 and 2004)
    • Best single-year sales - 9,395,118 - 2004 Ford F-150 (23 years in a row as the top-selling single vehicle, 28 years as the best-selling truck in the USA)
    • Best-selling American Sedan - Ford Taurus (more than 7,000,000 sold in 4.5 generations sold between 1986 and 2006)
    • Best Selling Minivan - Dodge Caravan, over 11,000,000 sold.
  • Lowest-production models: (excluding limited-production vehicles)
    • Pickup truck - avg. 223 per month, Lincoln Blackwood (3,356 sold in 15 months)
    • Sports car - avg. 6 per month, Toyota 2000GT (337 sold in 5 years)
      • Honorable mention: avg. 79 per month, Bricklin SV-1 (2,857 sold in 3 years)
    • SUV - avg. 4 per month, Lamborghini LM002 (301 sold in 6 years)
      • Honorable mention: avg. 200 per month, Suzuki X-90 (7,205 sold in 3 years)
  • Marques and manufacturers:
    • World's top-selling manufacturer, 2005 - Toyota*, General Motors, and Ford Motor Company
    • United States top-selling marque, 2005 - Chevrolet Total numbers stated to be just below 400,000 units

For first ten months of 2005.*

Firsts

Full-production vehicles are listed here. Many were preceded by racing-only cars.

  • First automobile manufacturer - Panhard et Levassor (1889) (followed by Peugeot in 1891)
  • First standardized automobile - Benz Velo (1894) or Duryea Motor Wagon (1893)
  • First mass-produced automobile - Oldsmobile Curved Dash (1901)
    • Honorable Mention - Ford Model T, first car produced on a moving assembly line.

Engine types

  • V4 engine
    • First V4 - 1922 Lancia Lambda
      • Honorable mention - 1903 Marmon (few produced)
  • Straight-6
    • First 6-cylinder - 1903 Napier
  • V6 engine
    • First V6 - 1950 Lancia Aurelia
      • Honorable mention - 1904 Marmon (few produced)
    • First American V6 - 1962 Buick Special
  • Straight-8
    • First I8 - 1919 Isotta-Fraschini
      • Honorable mention - 1920 Duesenberg
  • V8 engine
    • First V8 - 1910 De Dion-Bouton
      • Honorable mention - 1904 Marmon (few produced)
    • First mass-produced V8 - 1914 Cadillac Type 51
    • First mass-produced monobloc V8 - 1932 Ford Model B
    • First OHV V8 - 1949 Oldsmobile/Cadillac (Not the same engine, but both released the same year)
  • V10 engine
    • First V10 - 1992 Dodge Viper
    • First V10 sedan - 2002 Volkswagen Phaeton
  • V12 engine
    • First V12 - 1916 Packard "Double-Six"
  • W12 engine
    • First W12 - 2002 Volkswagen Phaeton (5998cc W12 engine - four banks of three cylinders)
  • V16 engine
    • First V16 - 1930 Cadillac V-16
      • Honorable mention - 1931 Marmon and 1932 Peerless
  • W16 engine
    • The Bugatti Veyron is expected to be the first production car from a major manufacturer to use a W16 engine, however, several smaller firms have either developed prototyped or produced small numbers of cars - including the Jimenez Novia which used a 4.1 L W16 based on four I4 Yamaha motorcycle engines.
  • W18 engine
    • No production cars yet are known to use a W-18 configuration, however Bugatti has experimented with both three-bank and four-bank designed for various concept cars.

Engine technologies

  • First carburetor - 1896 Daimler
  • First overhead cam engine - 1898 Wilkinson
  • First DOHC engine - 1925 Alfa Romeo 6C (Peugeot had a DOHC multivalve Grand Prix car in 1913)
  • First variable displacement engine - 1905 Sturtevant 38/45 six
    • Honorable mention - 1917 Enger Twin-Unit Twelve
  • First twin-spark engine - 1921 Bentley 3 Litre
  • Multi-valve engines
    • First 3-valve engine - 1924 Bugatti Type 35 (Type 18 had a 3-valve in 1912, but only 6 or 7 were made. Type 35 used the engine from the 1922 Type 29 racing car.)
    • First 4-valve engine - 1921 Bentley 3 Litre
      • Honorable mentions - 1931 Bugatti Type 51 DOHC. An SOHC 4-valve engine appeared in 1910's Type 13 racing car, while a 4-valve straight-4 was also developed by Bugatti in 1914. The Linthwaite-Hussey Motor Company of Los Angeles manufactured and advertized a four-valve straight-4 engine in 1916.
    • First 5-valve engine - 1991 tie Bugatti EB110 3.5 L V12, Mitsubishi Minica Dangan ZZ .7L I4 and Toyota 4A-GE I4
    • First 6-valve engine - 1985 Maserati 2.0L V6 36V 261HP
    • First 3-valve Diesel - 1989 Citroën XM
    • First 4-valve Diesel - 1994 Mercedes-Benz E-Class
    • First multi-valve turbocharged engine - 1984 Saab 900 B202
  • First carburetor air filter - 1915 Packard Twin Six
    • Honorable mention - 1922 Rickenbacker had a modern dry element
  • First crankcase ventilation - 1926 Cadillac V8 engine
  • First automatic choke - 1932 Oldsmobile
  • First four-barrel carburetor - 1941 Buick
  • Fuel injection
    • First FI engine - 1910 Adams Farwell Diesel
    • First non-Diesel FI engine - 1952 Gutbrod Superior
    • First gasoline direct injection - 1955 Mercedes-Benz 300SL
    • First electronic fuel injection - 1968 Bosch D-Jetronic - Volkswagen Type 3/Type 4
    • First Diesel direct injection engine - 1986 Fiat Croma TD
    • First electronic gasoline direct injection - August 1996 Mitsubishi Galant/Legnum 4G93 GDI I4
  • First turbocharged car - 1962 Oldsmobile F-85 Turbo Jetfire
    • Honorable mention - 1962 Chevrolet Corvair flat-6
  • First variable-nozzle turbocharger - 1989 Shelby CSX
  • First point ignition - 1910 Cadillac Model Thirty/Delco
  • First electronic ignition - 1960 General Motors Delco
  • First alternator - 1960 Chrysler Corporation, Plymouth Valiant
  • First flat-engine - 1905 Knox
  • First square engine - 1906 Premier
  • First monobloc engine with removable cylinder head - 1908 Ford Model T
  • First counterbalanced crankshaft - 1908 Mercer Type 35
  • First split-plane crankshaft - 1923 Cadillac V8 engine
  • First gas turbine car - 1950 Rover JET 1 (Experimental only; no gas turbine car ever reached real production)
  • Wankel engines
    • First Wankel engine - 1964 NSU Spider
    • First 2-rotor Wankel engine - 1965 Mazda Cosmo (60 preproduction examples were produced and registered)
      • Honorable mention - 1966 NSU Ro 80
    • First front-wheel drive Wankel engine - 1969 Mazda R130 Luce (Only FWD rotary vehicle ever produced)
    • First 3-rotor Wankel engine - 1991 Mazda Cosmo
      • Honorable mentions - 1969 Mercedes-Benz C111 and 1970 Felix Wankel-refitted Mercedes-Benz 300SL (Not production cars)
    • First turbo Wankel engine - 1982 Mazda Luce/Cosmo
  • First Miller cycle engine - 1996 Mazda Millenia
  • First Atkinson cycle engine - 2004 Toyota Prius
  • First Hydrogen vehicle - 2006 Mazda RX-8 (Japan commercial leases only)

Hybrid vehicles

  • First gas-electric hybrid - 1899 Lohner-Porsche Mixte (about 300 produced)
  • First modern hybrid car - 1997 Toyota Prius NHW10 (Japan)
  • First hybrid bus - 1997 Hino (Japan)
  • First all-wheel drive hybrid, first hybrid SUV - 2004 Ford Escape Hybrid
  • First hybrid luxury car - 2005 Lexus RX 400h (introduced January 2004)
  • First hybrid pickup truck - 2005 Chevrolet Silverado/GMC Sierra Hybrid (debated)
  • First rear-wheel drive hybrid car - 2007 Lexus GS450h (on sale March 16, 2006 in Japan)
  • First three-cylinder hybrid - 1999 Honda Insight
  • First four-cylinder hybrid - 1997 Toyota Prius NHW10 (Japan)
  • First six-cylinder hybrid - 2005 Lexus RX 400h (introduced January 2004)

Body

  • First production closed-body car - 1910 Cadillac Model Thirty
  • First monocoque - 1924 Lancia Lambda
    • Honorable mentions - 1917 Ruler Four (few produced), 1934 Citroën Traction Avant
  • First coupé convertible - 1934 Peugeot 401 D Eclipse
  • First safety windshield - 1948 Tucker Torpedo (popout safety glass) [3]
  • First fiberglass body - 1953 Chevrolet Corvette and Kaiser Darrin
  • First MPV - 1956 Fiat 600 Multipla
  • First retractable hardtop - 1930s Lancia
    • Honorable mention - 1957 Ford Skyliner
  • First hatchback - 1953 Aston Martin DB2/4
    • Honorable mentions - 1958 Austin A40 Farina, 1962 Innocenti Combinata, and 1965 Renault 16
  • First fiberglass monocoque - 1959 Lotus Elite
  • First SUV - 1942 Dodge Carryall
  • First carbon fiber monocoque - 1991 McLaren F1
  • First aerodynamic design - Tie: 1934 Chrysler Airflow and 1934 Tatra T77

Transmission

  • Manual transmissions
    • First synchronized transmission - 1929 Cadillac
    • First overdrive - 1934 Chrysler Airflow
    • First modern cone synchromesh transmission - 1952 Porsche 356
    • First 5-speed manual - 1953 Ferrari 212
    • First 6-speed manual - 1986 Honda Civic Wagon 4WD
      • Honorable mention - 1986 Porsche 959 (introduced at 1985 Frankfurt Motor Show but first customer deliveries were delayed until 1987)[4]
      • Honorable mention - 1957 Moskvitch 410/411
    • First 8-speed manual - 1960 Moskvitch 410/411
    • First 16-speed manual - 1913 David
  • Automatic transmissions
    • First automatic transmission - May 1939 Oldsmobile Hydra-Matic (also the first 4-speed automatic)
      • Honorable mention - 1934 REO (a pair of self-shifting manuals)
      • Honorable mention - 1937 Oldsmobile Automatic Safety Transmission
    • First torque converter automatic - 1948 Buick Dynaflow
      • Honorable mention - 1949 Packard Ultramatic (torque converter automatic)
      • Honorable mention - 1946 Chrysler Presto-Matic (torque converter manual)
    • First non-planetary automatic - 1968 Honda Hondamatic
    • First 5-speed automatic - 1991 BMW E34 5-Series and E36 320i/325i ZF 5HP18
    • First 6-speed automatic - 2002 BMW E65 7-Series ZF 6HP26
      • Honorable mention - 1999 Jeep Grand Cherokee 45RFE had an automatic transmission with 3 planetary gearsets capable of six speeds, but only 5 were used, and the company advertized it as a 4-speed.
    • First 7-speed automatic - 2003 Mercedes-Benz 7G-TRONIC
    • First 8-speed automatic - 2007 Lexus LS 460
  • First limited slip differential - 1956 Studebaker
  • First continuously variable transmission - 1958 DAF 600 "A-Type"

Layout

  • First RR car - 1896 Hertel
  • First front-wheel drive - 1929 Cord L29
    • Honorable mention - 1900 Pennington and 1928 Alvis (did not sell more than 150 units)
    • Honorable mention - 1934 Citroën Traction Avant
  • First transverse front-wheel drive - 1949 Saab 92
    • Honorable mention - 1959 Mini
    • First transverse FWD I5 - 1993 Volvo 850
    • First transverse FWD I6 - 1970 Austin Kimberley & Austin Tasman
      • Honorable mention - 1959 Saab Monster (Not a production vehicle)
    • First transverse FWD V8 - 1985 Cadillac DeVille
  • First four-wheel drive vehicle - 1910 Caldwell Vale or 1911 Four Wheel Drive
  • First all-wheel drive car - 1966 Jensen FF
    • Honorable mention - 1901 Lohner-Porsche (One produced), electric 4WD
    • Honorable mention - 1902 Jacobus Spyker (One produced), first mechanical 4WD
    • Honorable mention - 1932 Type 53 (Three produced)
    • Honorable mention - 1958 Citroën 2CV Sahara (Dual-engine all wheel drive)
  • First FR transaxle - 1950 Lancia Aurelia (the 1914 Stutz Bearcat featured a primitive transaxle)
  • First MR car - 1957 Zündapp Janus (or possibly the 1923 Benz Drop-Shaped racer)
  • First MR AWD car - 1990 Panther Solo 2
    • Honorable mention - 1985 Ford RS200 (Homologation special, only 200 road cars produced for Group B regulations.)
    • Honorable mention - 1985 Peugeot 205 Turbo-16 (Homologation special, only 200 road cars produced for Group B regulations.)
    • Honorable mention - 1985 Lancia Delta S4 (Homologation special, only 200 road cars produced for Group B regulations.)
    • Honorable mention - 1985 Rover Metro 6R4 (Homologation special, only 200 road cars produced for Group B regulations.)
  • First four wheel steering - 1985 Nissan Skyline HICAS
    • Honorable mention - 1970s Daimler-Benz offroad trucks
    • Honorable mention - April 1987 Honda Prelude 4WS
    • Honorable mentioned - 2002 Chevrolet Silverado

Suspension

  • First torsion bar suspension - 1921 Leyland
  • First front independent suspension - 1924 Lancia Lambda
  • First hydraulic shock absorbers - 1933 Hudson (Monroe)
  • First coil spring/shock absorber suspension - 1934 Cadillac, Chrysler, and Hudson
  • First MacPherson strut suspension - 1949 Ford Vedette
  • First Chapman strut suspension - 1958 Lotus Elite
  • First air suspension - 1958 Cadillac Brougham
    • Honorable mentions - 1909 Cowley and 1933 Stout-Scarab (Firestone)
  • First self-levelling suspension - 1955 Citroën DS
    • Honorable mention - 1954 Citroën Traction Avant 15HHydropneumatic
  • First electronically-controlled suspension - 1985 Nissan Maxima (Japan-market model)
  • First fully active suspension - 1991 Infiniti Q45 (renamed Q45a for 1992)
  • First active anti-roll bars - 2002 BMW 7-Series (Active Roll Stabilization)

Brakes

First power brakes - 1919 Hispano-Suiza H6 (mechanically assisted)
Honorable mention - 1921 Duesenberg Model A
First vacuum-assist power brakes - 1928 Pierce-Arrow
First standard disc brakes - 1955 Citroën DS
Honorable mentions - 1956 (HRG twincam) used helicopter disc brakes Triumph TR3, Girling (Jaguar pioneered disc brakes at Le Mans in 1953)
First antilock braking system - 1966 Jensen FF (Dunlop Maxaret system, previously used in aviation)
First electrical antilock braking system - 1969 Lincoln Continental Mark III
Honorable mention - 1970 Cadillac (rear only)
First electronic antilock braking system - 1986 Lincoln Mark VII/Continental and Chevrolet Corvette
First Electric parking brake - 2003 Lincoln LS
First diagonally split, dual brake circuits - 1962 Saab 95/96
First asbestos-free brake pads - 1983 Saab Automobile
First electro-hydraulic brakes - 2003 Mercedes-Benz SL-Class
First regenerative brakes - 1994 Toyota Prius

Driver-aids

First standard rear-view mirror - 1912 Marmon
First power steering - 1951 Imperial
First cruise control - 1957 Imperial
Honorable mention - Peerless had a centrifugal governor speed control system in the 1910s
First traction control - 1987 Bosch Mercedes-Benz S-Class/BMW 7-Series
First dynamic stability control system/Electronic Stability Program - 1996 BMW 7-Series/Mercedes-Benz CL-Class
First adaptive cruise control - 1997 Toyota Celsior
First night vision - 2000 Cadillac DeVille
First integrated car dynamics control system: 2005 Toyota Crown Majesta (Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management)

Passive-restraint

First airbags - 1974 Oldsmobile Toronado
First head airbags - 1998 BMW 7-Series

Tires

First use of pneumatic tires - 1895 Peugeot L'Eclair (Michelin)
First standard pneumatic tires - 1896 Bollee Voiturette
First radial-ply tires - 1949 Michelin "X" (patented in 1946)
First self-repairing tires - 1950 Goodyear
First run-flat tires - Porsche 959 (Dunlop Denloc; with special wheels)
Honorable mention - 1994 Chevrolet Corvette C4 (Goodyear SST; optional; with regular wheels)
Honorable mention - 1997 Chevrolet Corvette C5 (standard)

Lighting

First electrical lighting - 1898 Columbia electric
First standard lights - 1904 "Prest-O-Lite" acetylene
First standard electrical lights - 1908 Peerless
First integrated electrical and lighting system - 1912 Cadillac Model 1912 Delco
First "dipping" headlights - 1915 Guide Lamp Company
First dual-beam headlight - 1924 Bilux
First swivel headlights - 1948 [[Tucker(car)] Tucker Torpedo
First fog lights - 1938 Cadillac
First auto-dimming headlights - 1952 Cadillac Autronic Eye
First auto-on/off headlights - 1964 Cadillac Twilight Sentinel
First halogen headlights - 1965 Hella
First headlight wipers - 1970 Saab Automobile
First modern U.S.-market car with sealed beam headlights - 1984 Lincoln Mark VII
First AC HID lights - 1991 BMW 7-series
First DC HID lights - 1997 Lincoln Mark VIII
First neon lights - 1997 Lincoln Mark VIII
First all-LED tail lights - 1998 Maserati 3200 GT
First Bi-Xenon HID lights - 2000 Mercedes-Benz CL-Class

Electrical system

First electric windows - 1938 Buick Y
First combination key and ignition switch - 1949 Chrysler
First AC alternator - 1960 Valiant
First sealed battery - 1971 Pontiac "Freedom Battery"
First multiplexed wiring - 1987 Cadillac Allanté
First integrated car systems control - 1991 Mazda Eunos Cosmo (Car Control System)

Climate control

First windshield defroster - 1928 Studebaker
First windshield washer - 1937 Studebaker
First air conditioning - 1938 Studebaker Commander
Honorable mention - 1939 Packard and 1941 Cadillac
First rear window defogger - 1948 Cadillac
First heated seats - 1966 Cadillac
Honorable mention (first electrically heated) - 1972 Saab 99
First automatic climate control - 1964 Cadillac
First digital climate control - 1975 Rolls-Royce Camargue
First ventilated seats - 1997 Saab 9-5

In-car electronics and entertainment

First original-equipment radio - 1923 Springfield
First navigation system - August 1981 Honda Accord (analog, dealer-installed) [5]
First digital navigation system - 1990 Acura Legend
First GPS navigation system - 1995 Oldsmobile Eighty Eight Guidestar[6]
Honorable mention - 1996 tie 1997-model BMW 5-Series and Acura RL
Honorable mention - 1990 Pioneer Electronics/Trimble (aftermarket)
Honorable mention - 1992 Mazda (dealer-installed)
First telematics assist system - 1996 tie 1997-model Cadillac Seville (OnStar) and Lincoln Continental (Motorola RESCU)
First DVD navigation system - 1996 Matsushita/Pioneer Electronics (aftermarket)
First in-car PC - 1997 Microsoft Auto PC (aftermarket)
First Bluetooth-capable audio system - 2000 Chrysler
First THX-certified stereo system - 2003 Lincoln LS
First in-car karaoke machine - 2003 Geely BL
First active noise cancellation - 2005 Acura RL

Other

First steering wheel - 1899 Packard
First speedometer - 1901 Oldsmobile
First tilt-away steering wheel - 1912 Peerless
First dash-mounted fuel tank gauge - 1914 Studebaker
First turn signals - 1939 Buick
First split folding rear seats - 1961 Renault 4 (Fiat patented the system in 1978)
First tilt/telescope steering wheel - 1965 Cadillac
First composite wheels - 1989 Shelby CSX
First active differential - 1997 Honda Prelude Type SH
Honorable mention - 2005 Ferrari F430 and Acura RL feature the first fully-integrated electronic differentials

American types

First standardized American automobile - Duryea Motor Wagon (1896)
First American electric car - Detroit Electric (1907)
First American hybrid SUV - Ford Escape Hybrid

Pre-War

Best-selling pre-war vehicle - Ford Model-T (15,000,000 sold between 1908 and 1928)
Least-expensive full-featured automobile - 1927 Ford Model-T ($300 is about $3500 in inflation-adjusted 2005 dollars)
Largest vehicle - Bugatti Royale - 21 ft (6.4 m) long, 180 in (4.57 m) or 170 in (4.32 m) wheelbase depending on model
Largest pre-war Straight-4 - 21.5 L (21495 cc) - 1912 Benz 82/200
Largest pre-war Straight-6 - 21.1 L (21112 cc) - 1905 Panhard et Levassor 50 CV
Largest pre-war Straight-8 - 12.8 L (12763 cc/778 in³) - 1929 Bugatti Royale

See also


Home | Up | Car of the Year | Car companies that do not make FWD models | Vehicle models used in the military | Slang terms for automobiles | Slang terms for police vehicles | Automobile_manufacturers | Automobile model and marque oddities | Automobile model nameplates with a discontiguous timeline | Automotive superlatives | Bestselling vehicle nameplates | Cars | Diesel automobiles | Famous automobiles | List_of_fictional_vehicles.html | International Formula One colors | Supercars | Unrelated vehicles with identical nameplates | Songs about automobiles | Flagship vehicles | Automotive flops | MR Cars | Mini based cars | Automotive packages | Recent automobile models by type | Most expensive cars

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This guide is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia.








 

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