Crea il tuo Account

Home Page
  Mi Piace WebCommunityLab  Segui WebCommunityLab  Cerca nel Sito Notizie Scuola Materiali Didattici News Community Forums Tuo Account
    



 
 Ti trovi in:Home Page > Ambiente Giochi-Svago  >  Automobili

Riconoscimenti profScaglione.it

©

Info Utenti

Login

Nickname:
Password:
Login:

 

Social Registration Registrati
Passa da qui se hai già un account su Facebook

Termini di Servizio

Clicca su Accetto Termini Servizio per la loro accettazione e per dichiarare di avere almeno 13 anni: ti compariranno i loghi Social con cui potrai registrarti istantaneamente!


 

Ciao Utente Anonimo



Registrati direttamente qua su profScaglione.it

   Registrati


Hai perso la tua Password?




 

Guarda Lista Membri WebCommunityLab
Utenti

Membri del Sito:
Ultimi Membri Registrati alla WebCommunityLab Ultimo registrato:
     peppelarosa 
Numero totale Membri WebCommunityLab Complessivi: 1687

Persone Online:
Numero degli Ospiti Online in questo momento Ospiti: 61

Traffico:



Navigazione Sito

 Ambienti 
 HOME PAGE
 Ambienti
 Info-Statistiche
 Notizie-Scuola
 Didattica-Alimentazione
 Social-Community
 Giochi-Svago
 Aiuto-Risorse
 Info 
 Info-Statistiche
 Dedica Sito
 Chi siamo?
 Riconoscimenti
 Staff
 Contattaci
 Mappa Sito I
 Mappa Sito II
 Raccomanda il Sito
 Progetto_El_Awards2
 Presentazione WebCommunityLab
 Progetti
 Fai Proposte sui Progetti
 Partecipa alla WebCommunity
 Privacy
 TerminiServizio
 Bibliografia-Crediti
 Rss Notizie Scuola
 Rss Community
 Rss Enciclopedie Vocaboli
 Rss Ricette Community
 Rss Alimenti Community
 Rss Video YouTube
 Sistema Ricerca Globale
 Statistiche 
 Info-Statistiche
 Ricette più Viste
 Ricette più Votate
 Alimenti più Visti
 Alimenti più Votati
 Statistiche Forum
 Top Ten
 Sistema Ricerca Globale
 News Scuola 
 Notizie-Scuola
 News Scuola
 Argomenti Notizie Scuola
 News Ctg Prof
 News Ctg Stud-Prof
 News Ctg Studenti
 News Ctg Genitori-Stud
 News Ctg Presidi
 News Ctg Scuole
 News Ctg ATA
 News Ctg IPSSAR Nembro
 News Ctg Tutti
 Archivio Notizie Scuola
 Tags Scuola
 Forum Esami di Stato
 Forum Nuovi IPSSAR
 Sistema Ricerca Globale
 Didattica 
 Didattica-Alimentazione
 News Alimentazione
 Argomenti Alimentazione
 News Ctg Classi 1^
 News Ctg Classi 2^
 News Ctg Classi 3^
 News Ctg Classi 4^
 News Ctg Classi 5^
 News Ctg Tutte le Classi
 News Novità Sito
 Archivio News Alimentazione
 Enciclopedie
 Prove Strutturate
 Interrogatore
 Forums
 Mappa Ipertestuale Alimentazione Classe 5^
 Tags Alimentazione
 Ricette
 Alimenti
 Cruciverba-Alimentazione
 Impiccato Cl. 1^
 Impiccato Cl. 2^
 Impiccato Cl. 3^
 Impiccato Cl. 4^
 Impiccato Cl. 5^
 Calcolo I.M.C.
 Fabbisogni Energia
 Equivalenze
 Acronimi
 Sistema Ricerca Globale
 Social-Community 
 Social-Community
 Fan-Facebook-Twitter
 Il Tuo Account
 Messenger
 The Wall - Muro
 Messaggi Privati
 Chat
 Poesie
 Racconti Narrativa
 Guestbook Sito
 Cartoline Virtuali
 Citazioni
 Barzellette
 Sistema Ricerca Globale
 Giochi 
 Giochi-Svago
 Tris
 Impiccato Cl. 1^
 Impiccato Cl. 2^
 Impiccato Cl. 3^
 Impiccato Cl. 4^
 Impiccato Cl. 5^
 Scacchi
 MasterMind
 Sudoku
 Coloku
 Cruciverba-Alimentazione
 Cerca Parole
 Sistema Ricerca Globale
 Svago e Relax 
 Giochi-Svago
 Barzellette
 Ricette
 Citazioni
 Cani
 Gatti
 Pesci
 Uccelli
 Rettili
 Automobili
 FIFA World Cup
 Sistema Ricerca Globale
 Aiuto 
 Aiuto-Risorse
 Come_Registrarsi
 Aiuto Online
 Contattaci
 Invio Files Materiali
 Sistema Ricerca Globale
 Cerca in Acronimi
 Cerca in Barzellette
 Cerca in Poesie Amore
 Cerca in Altre Poesie
 Cerca Utenti
 Cerca Notizie Scuola
 Cerca News Community
 Cerca nei Forums
 Cerca in Ricette
 Cerca in Alimenti
 Cerca in Enciclopedia Alimenti
 Cerca in Enc. TSPC-TSPS
 Cerca in Gallery Multimediale
 Risorse 
 Aiuto-Risorse
 Crea Password
 Codice Fiscale
 Whois
 Nuke Generator
 GUIstuff
 Nuke Tools
 PHP-Nuke Tools
 Flash Tools
 Style Tools
 Crea Bottoni
 Creazione Banner
 Testo Scorrevole
 Testo 3d
 Convertitore Date Unix
 Byteconverter
 Sistema Ricerca Globale
 Partecipa 
 Partecipa alla WebCommunity
 News Alimentazione
 Invio Files Materiali
 Invia Vocabolo Enciclopedia
 Invia Ricetta
 Invia Alimento
 Invia Tuo Muro
 Invia Tua Poesia
 Invia Barzelletta
 Invia Tuo Link
 Invia Img x Gallery
 Fai Proposte sui Progetti
 Segnala o Consiglia
 Sistema Ricerca Globale

Count Down

Alla Fine della Scuola mancano .....
5 anni, 34 giorni, 7 ore, 47 minuti, 46 secondi fa


Ricerca Globale





Social

Condividi WebCommunityLab su
Facebook e Twitter


la WebCommunityLab è su Facebook!

Diventa Fan della WebCommunityLab:


la WebCommunityLab è su Twitter!


Guarda il canale wcl su YouTube!

Vai alla pagina della WebCommunityLab su YouTube

 

Ultimi Video

WebCommunityLab Mobile

WebCommunityLab di profScaglione.it è anche Mobile: le ultime 10 `News del Sito` e le ultime 10 `News della WebCommunityLab`, direttamente da cellulari, palmari e smartphone, attraverso delle pagine `leggere` create appositamente per questo scopo! Da non usare con il normale pc!
Questo è il link da digitare sul tuo Cellulare:
www.profscaglione.it/mobile

Ricette Allievi Casuali

Video casuali You Tube

Citazioni ed Eventi Storici

"Per comprenderci meglio faremmo meglio tacere che parlare"

Tremenda

 


10 Luglio - In questo giorno nel ...
1985 - La Coca Cola rimette in commercio la bevanda più venduta nel mondo nella sua formula originale. La modifica aveva causato furiose proteste dei consumatori.
138 - Muore l'Imperatore Adriano ... gli succede Antonino Pio
1978 - Due treni di pendolari si scontrano frontalmente sulla circumvesuviana. Nella sciagura perdono la vita 13 persone.

 


Cerca Globale Sito
block-cerca_centrale_rid
Vai alla Sezione Ricerca Globale



Cerca News Scuola
News Scuola
Cerca nei Forums
Forums
Cerca News WebCommunityLab
News Alimenti
Cerca nelle Ricette
Ricette
Community
Cerca negli Alimenti
Alimenti
Community
Cerca nelle Ricette
Enciclopedia
Alimentazione
Cerca negli Alimenti
Enciclopedia
Cucina, Sala

Avviso ai Visitatori

Avviso importante per i visitatori

Tutti i servizi e le notizie offerti da profscaglione.it sono rigorosamente a carattere gratuito: nonostante la cura profusa dallo Staff sono possibili refusi ed errori di diversa natura; tali servizi vengono offerti così come sono e non si fornisce alcuna garanza sulla continuità degli stessi, che possono sempre essere sospesi od interrotti in qualsiasi momento.

Si tenga inoltre presente che la WebCommunityLab di profscaglione.it è un sito in parte frutto di attività didattica che, per la sua particolare natura, richiede a volte la pubblicazione di materiale non sempre corretto, sull'affidabilita` del quale non si fornisce alcuna garanzia.

Buona navigazione 
 
 

  
 

Navigazione Ambienti WebCommunityLab

Info-Statistiche
News Scuola
Didattica & Alimentazione
Social-Community
Giochi $ Svago
Help

 


Automobili








Vinyl roof

Car Show

Vinyl roof

From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia, by MultiMedia

Back | Home | Up | Next


Vinyl roof refers to a vinyl covering for an automobile's top. This covering was originally designed to give something of the appearance of a convertible to models with a fixed roof, but eventually it evolved into a styling statement in its own right. Vinyl roofs were most popular in the American market, and they are considered one of the period hallmarks of 1970s Detroit cars. Vinyl roofs were also very popular on European- (especially UK-) and Japanese-built cars during the 1970s, and tended to be applied to sporting or luxury trim versions of standard saloon (sedan) models by pretty much the whole gamut of manufacturers.

History

The first use of this technique goes back into the 1920s, when leather and canvas were sometimes used along with landau bars, to give a fairly accurate reproduction of a horse-drawn carriage's movable top. The technique fell out of favor in the 1930s and 1940s, when smoother, "envelope" bodies began to be fashionable; for these designs, the look of the modern, integrated metal roof was important.

Lincoln used the convertible look on some of its Cosmopolitan coupes in the 1950s, as did the Kaiser firm on its Manhattan sedans, although the material was still canvas. In the very late 50s, Chrysler's Imperial made a limited use of true vinyl on some models. Probably the first modern vinyl roof as it would later be accepted, though, appeared as an option on the 1962 Ford Thunderbird, a car which also re-introduced landau bars as a styling touch. The vinyl covering proved popular, and some form of vinyl trim would be commonly be seen on Thunderbird roofs for the next two decades.

Other manufacturers noticed immediately that the new look could be profitable – it didn't cost very much to add, but many buyers willingly paid a premium for it. Vinyl appeared on some coupe models in GM's 1962 full-size line. Chrysler took the first step toward moving the look out of the higher-price class, however, when they made a partial vinyl roof available on the compact 1963 Dodge Dart. Ford soon offered it on the first Mustang as well. By mid-decade, four-doors as well as coupes could be topped with a number of colorful vinyls.

From that point on, vinyl proliferated rapidly and became very common in most car classes by the late 60s, even appearing on some station wagons. Vinyls were produced that mimicked other materials such as (ironically) canvas, and even alligator hide. Chrysler briefly produced some very bizarre " " patterns, with paisley or floral designs – this was called the "Mod Top" option. The Mercury Cougar briefly offered a houndstooth pattern. There was even an aftermarket spray-on product that claimed to add that factory vinyl look, but mostly it just added the spray-on look. By 1972, even the humble Ford Pinto sported a vinyl roof option, and a Ford sales brochure of the time conceded that vinyl was mostly for looks, but gamely averred that a small case could be made for its sound insulating qualities. In a hailstorm, that might have been true.

At about that same time, the modern opera window first appeared, and it went so well with a vinyl surround that the two together became emblematic of American body design in the 1970s. During this period, vinyl with padding under it was sometimes used, allowing the top to somewhat mimic the feel as well as the look of a genuine convertible.

European and Japanese manufacturers were not immune to this trend. Chrysler used it on upmarket models of its Hunter and Avenger saloons; Ford had vinyl roofs on Escorts, Cortinas, Taunuses and Granadas into the early [1980s]]. British Leyland had vinyl roofs on the last Wolseley and top-end Leyland Princess models. Toyota adopted vinyl roofs for its Corona sedans in the mid-1970s, and they could be found on Nissan Laurels and Cedrics.

Vinyl continued to appear in many car lines through the 1980s, but the coming of the "aero look," first introduced to the US market by the 1983 Thunderbird, tended to militate against both opera windows and vinyl roofs, as their more formal style did not go well with the sleek profile designers were beginning to emphasize. During this final phase, canvas-look tops, often called cabriolet roofs, with simulated convertible top bows under the fabric, gained some popularity. The availability of all vinyl styles dwindled in the 1990s, until the 1998 Cadillac Fleetwood Limited offered one of the very last ones.

Hearse and limousine bodies almost universally still have vinyl tops. Not only are they part of the expected style of those vehicles, but they have a practical advantage in covering up the welded body seams that result when standard sedans are stretched to greater length. Aftermarket customizers also continue to install vinyl roofs of various types for drivers who want them. These are usually seen on Cadillacs and Lincolns, but can be fitted to virtually any kind of car.

Styles

Four major styles of vinyl roof evolved during the 1960s and 1970s, with a couple of odd variants thrown in:

  • FULL - this is the most commonly seen style, in which the vinyl simply covers the whole top of the car, including the rear quarter panels. The windshield pillars may or may not be covered. If a center sedan pillar exists, it is usually not covered, but exceptions to this rule were made. This is the type that was almost always used on four-door models.
  • HALO - this type is similar to the above, but the vinyl stops just short of the tops of the side windows and windshield, allowing a "halo" of painted sheet metal to appear between the vinyl and the glass area.

1964 Chrysler 300K - canopy vinyl 1964 Chrysler 300K - canopy vinyl

  • CANOPY - in this style, the vinyl covering is applied only to the front half or two thirds of the roof, usually ending at the trailing edge of the rear side windows. The windshield pillars are very commonly covered in this style, but the quarter panels never are.

1975 Chrysler Cordoba - landau vinyl 1975 Chrysler Cordoba - landau vinyl

  • LANDAU - this is almost the opposite of the canopy, as the vinyl covers the rear quarter or third of the roof, including the quarter panels, coming as far forward as the trailing edge of either the rear or front side window. In common parlance, this was often called the "half roof," although logically that term could apply to the canopy as well.

The above styles were all used by more than one manufacturer. Two others were unique to one company or nearly so:

1973 Dodge Charger - "up and over" vinyl 1973 Dodge Charger - "up and over" vinyl

  • Chrysler had a design for its large and intermediate coupes in the mid to late 70s that was often called "up and over." These cars all had opera windows, and the vinyl extended to only a couple of inches behind the opera window rather than all the way to the rear window as with a full vinyl treatment. The line of the vinyl then turned upward to run over the top of the car, leaving a margin of sheet metal almost like a roll bar sticking up at the very back of the roof. No one else used this style.
  • Ford in the late '70s managed to install both the landau and canopy styles on one vehicle. On vinyl-equipped '77-'79 Thunderbirds, two separate vinyl areas existed, one starting at the base of the windshield pillars and extending back to the trailing edge of the front side windows, and another starting at the base of the rear window and coming forward as far as the leading edge of the rear side window. These were separated by a targa band of sheet metal in the middle of the roof, which swept down at the sides to form a thick sedan-like pillar on the sides. The opera window was mounted in this pillar and was surrounded by sheet metal, not touching either vinyl area. Three pieces of glass were mounted on each side of these cars; the Fairmont Futura had a very similar style, differing only in not using the center opera window. Although it is rare, a comparable two-piece roof was available on the AMC Pacer.

See also: Car body styles

Issues for Collectors

Many 60s and 80s cars will have vinyl, and most 70's ones. Unfortunately, vinyl surfaces are not as durable as sheet metal and are particularly prone to sun damage, so faded, cracked, or actually ragged tops are commonly seen. Even where this is not the case, the trim around the tops often trapped water and caused rust, and this could percolate under the vinyl itself, where rusting even to the point of sheet metal perforation could rapidly occur. The only real exceptions would likely be cars from a dry climate which were well maintained and kept garaged. Replacement of a vinyl top can be costly, even leaving aside repair of any rust damage. For unusual vinyl grains and patterns, an exact replacement could be impossible to find.

External links

Fast vinyl

Formal vinyl

Final vinyl

Odd vinyl

Confusing vinyl

Practical vinyl

Contemporary vinyl


Home | Up | Hidden headlights | Personal luxury car | Streetfighter | Tailfin | Vinyl roof | Whitewall tire

Car Show, made by MultiMedia | Free content and software

This guide is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia.








 

* Cerca Globale Sito *

block-cerca_centrale_rid





Con Sistema avanzato di Filtri per le singole Sezioni
e la possibilità (come su Google) di cercare due-tre termini ben precisi mettendoli tra le " " (virgolette: il sistema troverà tutti i documenti in cui le parole tra le virgolette compaiono tutte in quel preciso ordine).


Cerca nelle Notizie / News sulla Scuola

Cerca News Scuola
Notizie sulla Scuola


Cerca nei Forums

Cerca nei Forums
Forums Community


Cerca nelle News della WebCommunityLab

Cerca News WebCommunityLab
News della WebCommunityLab


Cerca in:
Enciclopedia Alimentazione


Cerca nella Enciclopedia Scienza degli Alimenti e Biologia
Enciclopedia Alimentazione


Cerca in:
Enciclopedia Cucina, Enologia
Salabar


Cerca nella Enciclopedia Tecnica dei Servizi, Pratica di Cucina, Enologia
Enciclopedia Tecnica dei Servizi,
Pratica di Cucina, Enologia


Cerca nella Sezione Ricette

Cerca nelle Ricette
Ricette Community


Cerca nella Sezione Alimenti

Cerca neigli Alimenti
Alimenti Community




Calcolo IMC - Fabbisogno Energetico


Calcolo dell' Indice di Massa Corporea (I.M.C.) o Body Mass Index (B.M.I.) e del Fabbisogno Energetico Giornaliero



Calcola l'Indice di Massa Corporea: I.M.C.


Calcola il Fabbisogno Energetico Giornaliero



 




Questo portale non è una testata giornalistica, è una pubblicazione aperiodica e non può quindi essere considerato
un prodotto editoriale ai sensi della Legge 7/3/01, n. 62.
Tutti i loghi e i marchi sono dei rispettivi proprietari. I commenti sono di chi li posta.
Tutti i materiali provenienti da http://it.wikipedia.org sono sotto licenza Creative Commons; tutto il resto: licenza Creative Commons Attribuzione-Non commerciale-Non opere derivate 3.0 Italia (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 IT)
La responsabilità  degli scritti (articoli, messaggi, interventi sui forum, ...) è dei relativi autori: al riguardo profscaglione.it declina ogni responsabilità.



Webmaster and Administrator: prof. Flavio Scaglione.

Generazione pagina: 6.290 secondi (156)




Toolbar orizzontale Ambineti WebCommunityLab di profScaglione.it al fondo delle pagine